Landscapes (p3)

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Jesús Manzaneque & María Montes

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- Mountains and valleys

Mountain landscapes are made up of mountains and valleys.
In mountain areas, the land can be very high, and there are steep slopes.
When the mountain is not very high, we call it a hill.
Valleys are areas of low land between mountains. Many valleys were formed by rivers, which begin in the mountains.
- What are mountains like?

Mountains can be isolated, or together with other mountains. When they are together, it is called a mountain range.
Sometimes, these mountain ranges form a long line, called a chain.
There are three main parts to a mountain: the summit, which is the highest part, the foot, which is the lowest part, and the sides or slopes, which go from the foot to the summit.
2 mountain range.jpg
A mountain range

- Rocks and forests
Some mountains are rocky and bare. Others are covered with vegetation.
Mountain vegetation varies according to height. In the lower parts of the mountain, there are grasses and bushes. On the slopes, there are trees and meadows. At the top, there is hardly any vegetation at all.
- Life in the mountains

There are often villages on the sides of mountains. The inhabitants are livestock farmers. They earn a living from animal farming, cultivating crops, and from the forests.
Many years ago, mountain life was very hard. Communications were bad. Many people went to live in the valleys.
Today however, people who live in the cities often go to the mountains. They go there to rest, enjoy the landscape, and do different sports.
 - Landscape changes
Mountain landscapes have changed. They are now much easier places to live in.
People have built roads, railways, and tunnels in mountain areas. They have also built houses and, in some areas, ski
stations. Now, more mountain areas have electricity, and sometimes there are reservoirs in these areas.
Mountain landscape



- Areas of flat lands

Plains, moors and depressions are flat lands.
● Plains are low, flat lands which are only slightly above sea level. When these lands are near the sea, we call them coastal plains.
● Moors are high, flat lands. The land on a moor is higher than the surrounding land.
● Depressions are flat lands which are lower than the surrounding land.
coastal plane.jpg
A coastal plane
- Flat landscapes

Flat landscapes are large areas of land with very little difference in height.
Vegetation on flat landscapes is not as varied as on mountain landscapes. In many places, the land is used for agriculture.
Flat lands have a lot of rivers. The source of the rivers is in the mountains. These rivers flow across the flat areas to the sea.
A plain.jpg
A plain
- Life on plains

Life is easier on the plains than in the mountains. This is why most towns and cities are on plains.
Flat landscapes have changed a lot. People have built towns and cities, roads, railways, and airports.
The fields have been ploughed and are ready for planting crops.
life on plains.jpg
Life on plains


- The coast The coast is where land meets the sea. Coastal plains are low-lying coasts with lots of beaches. Mountains and coastal moors form high coasts with rocky cliffs.

- The shape of coastlines

Coastlines have different shapes: peninsulas, islands, gulfs, estuaries and capes.
A peninsula is a piece of land that is surrounded by water on all sides except one, which is called the isthmus.
An island is a piece of land surrounded by water on all
sides. A group of islands is called an archipelago.
A gulf is where the sea bites into the land. A small gulf is called a bay.
An estuary is where the sea and the river meet.
A cape is where a piece of land sticks out into the sea.
coastal landscape.jpg
Coastal landscape
- Natural vegetation of coastal landscapes

The natural vegetation of coastal landscapes often consists of bushes and pine forests.
Some coastal places are protected areas.
Different plants and animals live in these areas.
Rivers flow into the sea at the coast.
If the river is very wide in this area, it is called an estuary. If it is a triangular shape, it is called a delta.
river delta.jpg
A river delta. The river forms a delta when it reaches the sea.
- Life on the coast

Coastlines are often very populated. When there is a large population, the landscape may have changed a lot.
In the past, fishing was often an important occupation for people who lived on the coast.
Today, in many countries, fishing is less important. Tourism has become one of the most important industries.
In these places, there are often new apartment blocks, camp sites, marinas, roads and hotels.
yatch marina.jpg
A yacht marina. A marina built on the coast.


Maps of countries around the world

 Google Earth

Facts about highest and lowest elevations

Mountain shapes

Headlands and bays formation

How to use the cardinal points